Blueprint for Teaching English throughout the Day
SYSTEMATIC ELD refers to English instruction as its own discipline that follows a development scope and sequence of language skills (see ELD grade level standards). This instruction builds from simple to complex structures within the context of a range of everyday and academic language functions.
Systemic ELD is designed to establish a solid foundation in the English language, increase communicative competence in reading, writing, speaking, listening and thinking for both social and academic purposes.
This instruction is a separate content area of the curriculum, linked to Language Arts and targeted by level of proficiency.
By itself, Systematic ELD is not enough to ensure English learners have full access to the curriculum.
Front-loading language for Content Instruction occurs throughout the day, focusing on language preceding a specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) or mainstream content lesson. It is important that teachers anticipate language demands of the upcoming lesson. The linguistic demands of a content task are analyzed and taught in an up-front investment of time to render the content understandable to the student. This front-loading refers not only to the vocabulary, but also to the forms or structures of language needed to discuss the content. The content instruction, like the action of a piston, switches back and forth from focus on language, to focus on content, and back to language.
By itself, Frontloading Language for Content Area Instruction is not the entire ELD program; because it does not follow a scope and sequence of language skills (since it is determined by the content demand), it may have gaps in language knowledge.
Maximizing the “teachable moment” To provide on-the-spot immediate information by briefly modeling, explaining or clarifying a language structure or word meaning needed at the moment. Fully utilizing the teachable moment means using unique situational contexts for spontaneous learning, providing the next language skill needed to carry out a task, and taking advantage of odd moments throughout the day to expand and deepen language skills.
By itself this is not a comprehensive language program and does not ensure a solid foundation in English.
All three components are needed to assure English Learners are provided with a comprehensive ELD program leading to academic language proficiency.
The following tables show differentiation by ELD level for a variety of written tasks common to classrooms.
Increasingly Complex Sentences with Increasingly Specific Vocabulary
Students learn to understand and generate oral and written language with:
Simple sentences with key nouns, adjectives, and verbs moving into compound sentence with “and/but”
Conjunctions that summarize (to conclude, indeed, in summary, in short)
Conjunctions that summarize (indeed, therefore, consequently)
(Students list ways to recycle at school)
Recycling is easy and good for the environment.
To conclude, we would like to have recycling cans in the cafeteria.
Indeed, recycling in the cafeteria would drastically reduce waste in addition to creating a sense of community.
Chicken Little is scared.
Chicken Little is wrong.
Something fell on Chicken Little’s head. She thought it was the sky, but it was an acorn.
In short, Chicken Little thought that the sky was falling, but really an acorn had fallen on her head.
Therefore, it was because of her fear that Chicken Little believed the sky was falling and overreacted.
Clouds make rain.
Water evaporates and makes clouds. The it rains
In summary, clouds are formed from water that has evaporated.
Consequently, as water evaporates, clouds are formed.